Zoology - XI Syllabus

Secondary Education Curriculum
2076
Biology

6. Introduction to Biology

  • Introduction to Biology: 1 Teaching Hour
    • Scope and fields of biology. Relation with other science

7. Evolutionary Biology

  • Life and its Origin: 2 Teaching Hours
    • Oparin-Haldane theory, Miller and Urey’s experiment.
  • Evidences of evolution: 5 Teaching Hours
    • Morphological, Anatomical, Paleontological, Embryological and Biochemical.
  • Theories of evolution: 3 Teaching Hours
    • Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism.
  • Human evolution: 5 Teaching Hours
    • Position of man in animal kingdom. Differences between new world monkeys & old world monkeys, apes & man. Evolution of modern man starting from anthropoid ancestor.

8. Faunal Diversity

  • Protista: 4 Teaching Hours
    • Outline classification. Protozoa: diagnostic features and classification up to class with examples; Paramecium caudatum, Plasmodium vivax – habits and habitat, structure, reproduction, life-cycle and economic importance of P. falciparum.
  • Animalia: 10 Teaching Hours
    • Level of organization, body plan, body symmetry, body cavity and segmentation in animals. Diagnostic features and classification of the following phyla (up to class) with examples: Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata.
    • Earthworm (Pheretima posthuma): 10 Teaching Hours
      • Habit and habitat, External features; Digestive system (alimentary canal & physiology of digestion), Excretory system (types of nephridia, structure and arrangement of septal nephridia), Nervous system (central & peripheral nervous system, working mechanism) & Reproductive systems (male & female reproductive organs), Copulation, Cocoon formation and Economic importance.
  • Frog (Rana tigrina): 10 Teaching Hours
    • Habit and habitat, External features, Digestive system (alimentary canal, digestive glands & physiology of digestion), Blood vascular system (structure & working mechanism of heart), Respiratory system (respiratory organs & physiology of respiration) and Reproductive system (male & female reproductive organs).

9. Biota and Environment

  • Animal adaptation: 3 Teaching Hours
    • Aquatic (Primary & Secondary), Terrestrial (Cursorial, Fossorial & Arboreal) and Volant adaptation.
  • Animal behavior: 4 Teaching Hours
    • Reflex action, taxes, dominance and leadership. Fish and bird Migration.
  • Environmental Pollution: 3 Teaching Hours
    • Sources, effects and control measures of air, water and soil pollution. Pesticides & their effects.

10. Conservation Biology

  • Conservation Biology: 2 Teaching Hours
    • Concept of biodiversity, biodiversity conservation, national parks, wildlife reserves, conservation areas, biodiversity hotspots, wetland & Ramsar sites.
  • Wildlife: 2 Teaching Hours
    • Importance, causes of extinction and conservation strategies. IUCN categories of threatened species- meaning of extinct, endangered, vulnerable, rare, and threatened species. Endangered species in Nepal.

Practical Courses [32 Hours]

Unit 6: Introduction to Biology

13. Study parts of a compound microscope.

Unit 7: Evolutionary Biology

14. Study of the evidences of evolution through fossils (for example saligram).

Unit 8: Faunal Diversity

15. Study of specimens and identification with reasons- Amoeba, Hydra, Liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
16. Dissect and study the alimentary canal of the earthworm, frog and rabbit.

Unit 9: Biota and Environment

17. To study the biotic and abiotic components of pond or any other ecosystems nearby you

Unit 10: Conservation Biology

18. . Find out the new strategies for conserving biodiversity in the context of Nepalese development.

b) Sample project work for grade 11 in Biology

  1. Collect the sample of cryptogams (Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes) and study their characteristics.
  2. Observe and compare the morphological adaptation of hydrophytes, xerophytes and xerophytes.
  3. Prepare a report on local varieties and improved varieties of crops and vegetables in your area.
  4. Visit the forest or vegetation types in your nearby area and prepare a report on it.
  5. Prepare a report on the role of botanical garden in conservation of plants in Nepal
  6. Survey any locality regarding any topics related to theory course of Biology (visit to zoological museum/zoo/protected areas/natural habits- forest/lake or river) and writing a report of it.
  7. Prepare a report on causes and consequences of environmental pollution in your locality.
  8. Observe different cultivation methods of Mushroom and prepare a report on it.
  9. Look for resources like library, journals, web surfing, field observations etc and study present status and scope of Biotechnology in Nepal.