Zoology - XI Syllabus
Secondary Education Curriculum
6. Introduction to Biology
- Introduction to Biology: 1 Teaching Hour
- Scope and fields of biology. Relation with other science
7. Evolutionary Biology
- Life and its Origin: 2 Teaching Hours
- Oparin-Haldane theory, Miller and Urey’s experiment.
- Evidences of evolution: 5 Teaching Hours
- Morphological, Anatomical, Paleontological, Embryological and Biochemical.
- Theories of evolution: 3 Teaching Hours
- Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism.
- Human evolution: 5 Teaching Hours
- Position of man in animal kingdom. Differences between new world monkeys & old world monkeys, apes & man. Evolution of modern man starting from anthropoid ancestor.
8. Faunal Diversity
- Protista: 4 Teaching Hours
- Outline classification. Protozoa: diagnostic features and classification up to class with examples; Paramecium caudatum, Plasmodium vivax – habits and habitat, structure, reproduction, life-cycle and economic importance of P. falciparum.
- Animalia: 10 Teaching Hours
- Level of organization, body plan, body symmetry, body cavity and segmentation in animals. Diagnostic features and classification of the following phyla (up to class) with examples: Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata.
- Earthworm (Pheretima posthuma): 10 Teaching Hours
- Habit and habitat, External features; Digestive system (alimentary canal & physiology of digestion), Excretory system (types of nephridia, structure and arrangement of septal nephridia), Nervous system (central & peripheral nervous system, working mechanism) & Reproductive systems (male & female reproductive organs), Copulation, Cocoon formation and Economic importance.
- Frog (Rana tigrina): 10 Teaching Hours
- Habit and habitat, External features, Digestive system (alimentary canal, digestive glands & physiology of digestion), Blood vascular system (structure & working mechanism of heart), Respiratory system (respiratory organs & physiology of respiration) and Reproductive system (male & female reproductive organs).
9. Biota and Environment
- Animal adaptation: 3 Teaching Hours
- Aquatic (Primary & Secondary), Terrestrial (Cursorial, Fossorial & Arboreal) and Volant adaptation.
- Animal behavior: 4 Teaching Hours
- Reflex action, taxes, dominance and leadership. Fish and bird Migration.
- Environmental Pollution: 3 Teaching Hours
- Sources, effects and control measures of air, water and soil pollution. Pesticides & their effects.
10. Conservation Biology
- Conservation Biology: 2 Teaching Hours
- Concept of biodiversity, biodiversity conservation, national parks, wildlife reserves, conservation areas, biodiversity hotspots, wetland & Ramsar sites.
- Wildlife: 2 Teaching Hours
- Importance, causes of extinction and conservation strategies. IUCN categories of threatened species- meaning of extinct, endangered, vulnerable, rare, and threatened species. Endangered species in Nepal.
Practical Courses [32 Hours]
Unit 6: Introduction to Biology
13. Study parts of a compound microscope.
Unit 7: Evolutionary Biology
14. Study of the evidences of evolution through fossils (for example saligram).
Unit 8: Faunal Diversity
15. Study of specimens and identification with reasons- Amoeba, Hydra, Liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
16. Dissect and study the alimentary canal of the earthworm, frog and rabbit.
Unit 9: Biota and Environment
17. To study the biotic and abiotic components of pond or any other ecosystems nearby you
Unit 10: Conservation Biology
18. . Find out the new strategies for conserving biodiversity in the context of Nepalese development.
b) Sample project work for grade 11 in Biology
- Collect the sample of cryptogams (Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes) and study their characteristics.
- Observe and compare the morphological adaptation of hydrophytes, xerophytes and xerophytes.
- Prepare a report on local varieties and improved varieties of crops and vegetables in your area.
- Visit the forest or vegetation types in your nearby area and prepare a report on it.
- Prepare a report on the role of botanical garden in conservation of plants in Nepal
- Survey any locality regarding any topics related to theory course of Biology (visit to zoological museum/zoo/protected areas/natural habits- forest/lake or river) and writing a report of it.
- Prepare a report on causes and consequences of environmental pollution in your locality.
- Observe different cultivation methods of Mushroom and prepare a report on it.
- Look for resources like library, journals, web surfing, field observations etc and study present status and scope of Biotechnology in Nepal.