Chemistry - XII Syllabus

Section A: General & Physical Chemistry

Unit 1: Chemical Bonding and Shape of Molecules (3 Teaching Hours)

  • Hybridization and concept of sigma and pi bond
  • Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory
  • Prediction of molecular geometry (Shape of molecules) on the basis of VSEPR and hybridization (BeF2, BF3, NH3, H2O, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, H2S)

Unit 2: Volumetric Analysis (8 Teaching Hours)

  • Different ways of expressing the concentration of solutions

                        i. Molarity ii. Normality iii. Molality iv. Gram/Litre v. Percentage

  • Titration: i. acid-base titration ii. Redox titration
  • Primary standard substances, primary standard solution, secondary standard solution, end point, equivalence point, neutral point, indicators
  • Derivation of normality equation
  • Relation between normality and molarity
  • Selection of indicators in acid-base titration and pH curve
  • Solving related numerical problems

Unit 3: Ionic Equilibrium (12 Teaching Hours)

  • Introduction
  • Ionization of weak electrolyte (Ostwald’s dilution law)
  • Degree of ionization and ionization constant
  • Strength of acids and base in terms of Ka, Kb and pKa and pKb values
  • Acid-base concept
  1. Arrhenius concept of acids and bases.
  2. Bronsted lowry concept of acids and bases.
  3. Lewis concept of acids and bases.
  • Ionization of water, pH and pH scale.
  • Hydrolysis of salts. (qualitative concept)
  • Solubility product principle and its application
  • Common ion effects and its application
  • Application of solubility product principle in qualitative analysis
  • Buffer Solution (Solving numerical problems related with solubility, solubility product, pH and pOH)

Unit 4: Electrochemistry (10 Teaching Hours)

  • Introduction
  • Electrolysis; strong and weak electrolyte
  • Arrehenius theory of ionization
  • Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
  • Criteria of product formation during electrolysis
  • Electrolytic conduction, equivalent and molar conductivities
  • Variation of conductivity with concentration
  • Electrode potential, standard electrode potential, standard hydrogen electrode and its applications
  • Electrochemical series and its use to predict the feasibility of redox reactions
  • Electrochemical cell (Galvanic cell)
  • EMF of electrochemical cell in the standard state (Solving related numerical problems)

Unit 5: Energetics of Chemical Reactions (8 teaching hours)

  • Introduction, unit of energy
  • Some thermodynamical terms: system, surrounding, boundary, universe different types of system, state function, state variables and internal energy
  • Exchange of energy between the system and surrounding
  • Different types of thermodynamic process
  • The first law of thermodynamics
  • Sign convention of heat and work
  • Enthalpy, enthalpy change in chemical reactions
  • Hess’s law of constant heat summation
  • Heat of neutralization, heat of solution, heat of
  • combustion, heat of vapourization, heat of formation and bond energy (Solving related numerical problems)

UNIT 6: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS (6 teaching hours)

  • Spontaneous process
  • Second law of thermodynamics
  • Entropy and its physical concept
  • Entropy change in phase transformation
  • Entropy and spontaneity
  • Entropy changes and their calculation
  • Gibb’s free energy and prediction for the feasibility of reaction
  • Standard free energy change and equilibrium constant
  • Influence of temperature on spontaneous process (Calculation involving in standard free energy change and equilibrium constant)

UNIT 7: CHEMICAL KINETICS (10 Teaching hours)

  • Concept of reaction rate
  • Average rate and instantaneous rate of a reaction
  • Factors that influences the rate of reaction
  • Rate law equation, rate constant and its units
  • 1st order, IInd order, IIIrd order and zero order reactions
  • Order and molecularity of a reaction
  • Integrated rate law for a first order reaction
  • Half-life of a reaction (first order)
  • Explaining the increase in reaction rate with temperature or collision theory (qualitative concept only)
  • Concept of activation energy as the energy barrier, activated complex and effect of catalyst on the rate reaction (Solving related numerical problems)

Section B: Organic Chemistry

Unit 8: Aromatic Hydrocarbon (3 Teaching Hours)

  • Definition, Characteristics of aromatic compounds, Huckel’s rule, structure of benzene, isomerism and orientation of benzene derivatives
  • Preparation of benzene from
  1. decarbozylation ii. Phenol iii. Ethyne iv. Chlorobenzene
  • Physical properties of benzene
  • Chemical properties of benzene
  1. Additional reaction: hydrogen, halogen and ozone
  2. Electrophilic substitution reactions: nitration, sulphonation, halogenation Friedal craft’s alkylation and acylation
  3. Combustion of benzene and uses

Unit 9: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes (8 Teaching Hours)

9.1 Haloalkanes:

  • Introduction, classification and isomerism
  • Preparation of monohaloalkanes from alkanes, alkenes and alcohols
  • Physical properties of monohaloalkanes
  • Chemical properties
  • Substitution reactions
  • Elimination reaction (dehydrohalogenation)
  • Grignard’s reactions
  • Reduction reactions – Wurtz’s reaction
  • Polyhaloalkane:
  • Laboratory preparation of trichloromethane from ethanol and propanone
  • Physical properties of trichloromethane
  • Chemical properties: oxidation, reduction, action on Silver Powder, conc. nitric acid, propanone, aqueous alkali, Carbylamine reaction, Remer Tiemann reaction, Iodoform reaction, etc.

9.2 Haloarenes:

  • Preparation of chlorobenzene from i. benzene ii. Benzene diazonium chloride
  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties
  • Low reactivity of haloarene as compared to haloalkane in term of nucleophilic substitution reaction
  • Reduction of chlorobenzene
  • Electrophilic substitution reactions
  • Action with Na, Mg and chloral etc.
  • Uses

Unit 10: Alcohols and Phenols (10 Teaching Hours)

10.1 Alcohols:

  • Introduction, classification, nomenclature and isomerism
  • Distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol by Victor Mayer’s Method
  • Preparation of monohydric alcohols form
  1. haloalkane
  2. Grignard’s reagents using aldehydes and ketones

iii. Primary amines

  1. Ester
  • Industrial preparation ethanol form:
  1. Oxoprocess
  2. Fermentation of sugar

iii. hydroboration of ethane

  • Physical properties monohydric alcohols
  • Chemical properties of monohydric alcohols
  • Reaction with HX, PX, PCl5, SOCl2,
  • Action with reactive metals like Na, K, L Esterification process
  • Dehydration of alcohols.
  • Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol with oxidizing agents.
  • Reduction of alcohols (Catalytic dehydrogenation)
  • Laboratory test of ethanol
  • Absolute alcohol, methylated spirit, rectified spirit; alcoholic beverage.
  • Preparation and uses of ethan-1, 2. diol (glycol)
  • Preparation and uses of Propan – 1, 2, 3 triol (glycerol)

10.2. Phenols:

  • Introduction to phenol
  • Preparation of phenol from
  1. chlorobenzene
  2. Diazonium salt and

iii. benzene Sulphonic acid

  1. Physical properties of phenol
  2. Chemical properties
  • Acidic nature of phenol
  • Action with PCI5, PX3, NH3, Zn, Na benzene diazonium chloride and phthalic anhydride
  • Acylation reaction, Kolbe’s reaction, Reimer Tiemann’s reaction
  • Electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, bromination and Friedal Craft’s alkylation
  • Laboratory test of phenol
  • Uses of phenol

Unit 11: Ethers (4 Teaching Hours)

11.1 Aliphatic Ethers:

  • Introduction, nomenclature classification, isomerism in ether
  • Preparation of ethers from
  1. alcohol
  2. Williamson’s etherification process
  • Laboratory preparation of ethoxy ethane form ethanol
  • Physical properties of ether
  • Chemical properties of etherxyethane
  • action with HI, PCI5, con. HCI, Conc. H2SO4, air and Cl2,
  • Uses of ethoxy ethane

11.2 Aromatic Ether:

  • Preparation of methoxy benzene (anisole)
  • Halogenation, nitration and sulphonation reactions

Unit 12: Aldehydes and Ketones (11 Teaching Hours)

12.1 Aliphatic Aldehydes and Ketones

  • Introduction, structure of carbonyl group, nomenclature and isomerism in carbonyl compound
  • Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from
  1. Dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohol
  2. Ozonolysis of alkenes

iii. Acid chloride

  1. Gem dihaloalkane
  2. Calalytic distillation of fatty acid
  3. Distillaiton of salt of fatty acid

vii. Calalyic hydration of alkynes

  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties
  1. Addition reaction: addition of H2, HCN, NaHSO3 and Grignard’s reagents
  2. Action with ammonia derivatives; NH2OH, NH2-NH2, phenyl hydrazine, semicarbazides and 2, 4 DNP

iii. Reduction properties of aldehydes Oxidation with Tollen’s reagent, Fehling’s solution action with phenol, formalin and its uses

  1. Aldol or condensation reaction: Clemennson’s reduction, Wolf- Kischner reduction, Action with PC2 action with LiAlH4
  2. Special reaction of methenal; cannizzaro’s reaction, action with ammonia action with phenol, formalin and its uses.

12.2 Aromatic Aldehydes and Ketones:

  • Preparation of benzaldelyde from toluene
  • Properties of benzaldelyde
  • Important reaction benzaldelyde different form aliphatic aldehydes:
  • Perkin condensation
  • Benzoin condensation
  • Electrophilic substitution reaction
  • Cannizzaro’s reaction
  • Preparation of acetophenone by Friedal Craft’s acylation

Unit 13: Carboxylic Acids (10 Teaching Hours)

13.1 Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids:

  • Introduction, nomenclature, examples
  • Preparation of monocarboxylic acids from
  1. aldehydes
  2. Nitriles

iii. Grignard’s reagents

  1. dicarboxylic acid
  2. sodium alkoxide.

vi, trihaloalkanes

  • Physical properties of monocarboxylic acids
  • Chemical properties: Action with alkalies metal oxides, metal carbonates, metal bicarbonates, PC13, LiAlH4 and dehydration of carboxylic acid, esterification, halogenation
  • Effect of constituents on the acidic strength of carboxylic acid
  • Laboratory preparation of methanoic acid
  • Abnormal behaviour of methanoic acid
  • Uses of carboxylic acid

13.2 Derivatives of Carboxylic Acid:

  • Nomenclature, preparation and properties of
  1. Acid halides
  2. Acid amides

iii. Acid anhydrides and

  1. Esters

13.3 Aromatic Carboxylic Acids:

  • Preparation of benzoic acid
  • Physical and chemical properties
  • Uses of benzoic acid

Unit 14: Nitro compounds (4 Teaching Hours)

14.1 Aliphalic Nitrocompounds (Nitroalkane):

  • Introduction and nomenclature
  • Preparation from haloalkane and alkane
  • Physical properties
  • Reduction of nitro alkane
  • Uses

14.2 Aromatic Nitrocompounds:

  • Laboratory preparation of nitrobenzene
  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties
  • Reduction in different media
  • Electrophilic substitution reactions
  • Uses of nitrobenzene

Unit 15: Amino Compounds (Amines and Aniline) (7 Teaching Hours)

15.1 Aliphatic Amines:

  • Introduction, nomenclature and classification
  • Separation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines by Hoffmann’s method
  • Preparation of primary amines form haloalkane, nitriles, nitro alkanes and amides
  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties: basicity of amines, comparative study of basic nature of 10, 20 and 30 amines. Reaction of primary amines with chloroform, conc. HCl, R-X, RCOX and nitrous acid (NaNO/ HCl)
  • Test of 10, 20 and 30 amines. (Nitrous acid test).

15.2 Aromatic Amine (Aniline):

  • Laboratory preparation of aniline
  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties: basicity of aniline, comparison of basic nature of aniline with aliphatic amines, alkylation, acylation, diazotization, carbylamine and coupling reaction
  • Electrophilic substitution: Nitration sulphonation and bromination
  • Uses of aniline

Unit 16: Molecules of Life (8 Teaching Hours)

  • Carbohydrates: definition, classification of carbohydrates, various examples of carbohydrate of different class. structure and glucose and fructose, function of carbohydrates, sugar and non-sugar
  • Protein definition, amino acid essential and non-essential aminoacids, peptide linkage, hydrolysis of amino acids, denaturation of protein, zwitter ions, functions of aminoacids
  • Nucleic acid: definition, basic components of nucleic acid; double helix, difference between RNA an DNA; biological function of nucleic acid
  • Lipid: definition, fatty acids, fat as ester of fatty acid and difference between fats and oils, function of lipid
  • Enzymes and their functions

Unit 17: Chemistry in Service to Mankind (10 Teaching Hours)

  • Polymer: definition, natural and synthetic polymers, homopolymers and co-polymer Preparation of some polymers; PVC polyethene polystyreno Teflon, Nylon-66, Bakelite and their uses
  • Dyes: definition, natural and synthetic dyes, names and structure of some common drug, drug addiction
  • Fertilizer: definition, chemical and organic fertilizers, nitrogen fertilizer, phosphatic fertilizer, fertilizer as pollution
  • Pesticides: insecticides, herbicides. Weedicides and fungicides (examples and their uses)

SECTION C: Inorganic Chemistry

Unit 18: Heavy Metals (18 Teaching Hours)

General Characteristics of Transition Metals

18.1. Copper:

  • Position in periodic table
  • Occurrence and extraction of copper form copper pyrites
  • Properties and uses
  • Chemistry of

(i) blue vitriol

(ii) black oxide of copper

(iii) red oxide of copper

18.2 Zinc:

  • Position in periodic table
  • Occurrence and extraction of zinc from zinc blende
  • Properties and uses of zinc
  • Preparation properties and uses of zinc white and white vitriol
  • Galvanization

18.3 Mercury:

  • Occurrence and extraction of Hg from Cinnabar
  • Properties of mercury
  • Mercury poisoning and uses of Hg
  • Preparation, properties and uses of

                        (i) Calomel

                        (ii) Corrosive Sublimate

18.4 Iron:

  • Occurrence and extraction
  • Varieties of Iron
  • Properties of iron
  • Manufacture of Steel by
  1. Bessemer process
  2. Open hearth process
  • Heat treatment of steel
  • Stainless steel
  • Rusting of iron and its prevention
  • Uses and biological importance of iron
  • Structure and uses of green vitriol, Ferric chloride Mohr’s salt

18.5 Silver:

  • Extraction of silver by cyanide process and its uses
  • Preparation and uses of
  1. Silver chloride
  2. Silver nitrate