# Physics – XII Syllabus

## Unit 1: Wave and Optics (40 Teaching Hours)

### A: Wave (23 Hours)

Chapter 1: Wave Motion (4 Hours)

• Wave Motion
• Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
• Progressive and Stationary Waves
• Mathematical description of a wave

Chapter 2: Mechanical Waves (5 Hours)

• Speed of Wave Motion
• Velocity of sound in solid and Liquid
• Velocity of sound in gas
• Laplace’s correction
• Effect of temperature, pressure, humidity on velocity of sound

Chapter 3: Waves in Pipes and Strings (6 Hours)

• Stationary waves in closed and open pipes
• Harmonics and overtones in closed and open organ pipes
• End correction in pipes
• Resonance tube experiment
• Velocity of transverse waves along a stretched string
• Vibration of string and overtones
• Laws of vibration of fixed string

Chapter 4: Acoustic Phenomena (8 Hours)

• Sound waves
• Pressure amplitude
• Characteristics of sound
• Intensity
• Loudness
• quality and pitch
• Beats
• Doppler’s effect
• Infrasonic and ultrasonic waves
• Noise pollution: Sources, health hazard and control

### Physical Optics (17 Hours)

Chapter 5: Nature and Propagation of Light (6 Hours)

• Nature and sources of light
• Electromagnetic spectrum
• Huygen’s principle
• Reflection and refraction according to wave theory
• Velocity of light
• Foucault’s method
• Michelson’s Method

Chapter 6: Interference (4 Hours)

• Phenomenon of interference
• Coherent sources
• Young’s two slit experiment
• Newton’s ring

Chapter 7: Diffraction (4 Hours)

• Diffraction from a single slit
• Diffraction pattern of image
• Diffraction grating
• Resolving power of Optical Instruments

Chapter 8: Polarization

• Phenomenon of polarization
• Brewster’s law
• Transverse nature of light
• Polaroid

## Unit 2: Electricity and Magnetism (55 Teaching Hours)

### A: Current Electricity (20 Hours)

Chapter 9: D.C. Circuit (9 Hours)

• Electric Currents
• Drift velocity and its relation with current
• Ohm’s law
• Electrical Resistance
• Resistivity
• Conductivity
• Super conductors
• Perfect Conductors
• Current – Voltage relations
• Ohmic and Non- Ohmic resistance
• Resistances in series and parallel
• Potential Divider
• Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter
• Ohmmeter
• Electromotive force
• Emf of a source
• Internal resistance
• Work and power in electrical circuits
• Joule’s law and its verification

Chapter 10: Electrical Circuits (7 Hours)

• Kirchhoff’s laws
• Wheatstone bridge circuit
• O. Box
• Meter Bridge
• Potentiometer
• Comparison of e.m.f’s
• Measurement of Internal Resistance of a Cell

Chapter 11: Thermoelectric Effect (2 Hours)

• Seebeck Effect
• Thermocouples
• Peltier Effect
• Variation of thermoelectric emf with temperature
• Thermopile
• Thomson Effect

Chapter 12: Chemical Effect of Current (2 Hours)

• Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
• Verification of Faraday laws of electrolysis

### B: Magnetic Field of Current (35 Hours)

Chapter 13: Magnetic Field (14 Hours)

• Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux
• Oersted’s experiment
• Force on moving charge
• Force on Conductor
• Force and Torque on rectangular coil
• Moving coil galvanometer
• Hall effect
• Magnetic field of a moving charge
• Biot and Savert law and its application to (i) a circular coil (ii) a long straight conductor (iii) a long solenoid
• Ampere’s law and its application to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (iii) a toroidal solenoid
• Forces between two parallel conductors carrying current
• Definition of ampere

Chapter 14: Magnetic Properties of Materials (5 Hours)

• Elements of earth magnetism and their variation
• Dip and Dip circle
• Flux density in magnetic material
• Relative permeability
• Susceptibility
• Hysteresis
• Dia-, Para- and Ferro-magnetic materials

Chapter 15: Electromagnetic Induction (8 Hours)

• Induced electric fields
• Lenz’s law
• Motional electromotive force
• AC generators
• Eddy currents
• Self – inductance and Mutual inductance
• Energy stored in an inductor
• Transformer

Chapter 16: Alternating Currents

• Peak and RMS value of AC current and voltage
• AC through resistor, capacitor and inductor
• Phaser diagram
• Series circuits containing combination of resistor, capacitor and inductor
• Series resonance
• Quality factor
• Power in AC circuits
• Power factor
• Choke coil

## Modern Physics (55 Teaching Hours)

Chapter 17: Electrons and Photons (10 Hours)

Electrons:

• Millikan’s Oil drop experiment
• Gaseous discharge at various pressure
• Cathode rays
• Motion of electron beam in electric and magnetic fields
• Thomson’s experiment to determine specific charge of electron

Photons:

• Quantum nature of radiation
• Einstein’s photoelectric equation
• Stopping potential
• Measurement of Planck’s constant: Millikan’s Experiment

Chapter 18: Solids and Semiconductor Devices (11 Hours)

• Structure of solids
• Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only)
• Difference between metals, inductors and semiconductors using band theory
• Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors
• P-N junction
• Semiconductor diode
• Characteristics in forward and reverse bias
• Full wave rectification
• Filter circuit
• Zener diode
• Transistor: Common emitter characteristics
• Logic gates: NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR
• Nanotechnology (Introductory Idea)

Chapter 19: Quantization of Energy (9 Hours)

• Bohr’s theory of Hydrogen atom
• Spectral series
• Excitation and Ionization potentials
• Energy level
• Emission and absorption spectra
• De Broglie theory: Duality
• Uncertainty Principle
• Lasers: He-Ne laser, Nature and production, properties and uses
• X-rays: Nature and production
• Uses: x-rays
• X-rays diffraction
• Bragg’s Law

Chapter 20: Nuclear Physics (6 Hours)

• Nucleus: Discovery of nucleus
• Nuclear density
• Mass number
• Atomic number
• Atomic mass
• Isotopes
• Einstein’s mass-energy relation
• Mass defect
• Binding energy
• Fission and Fusion

Chapter 21: Radioactivity (7 Hours)

• Alpha particles
• Beta particles
• Gamma rays
• Laws of radioactive disintegration
• Half-life and decay constant
• Geiger-Muller Tube
• Radio Carbon dating
• Medical use of nuclear radiation
• Health Hazards and Safety Precautions

Chapter 22: Nuclear Energy and Other Sources of Energy (9 Hours)

• Sources of energy
• Conservation and degradation of energy
• Transformation of energy
• Nuclear energy
• Energy released from fission and fusion
• Thermal and hydroelectric power
• Wind energy
• Biofuels
• Solar energy
• Solar constant
• Solar devices
• Global energy consumption pattern and demands
• Energy use in Nepal
• Fuels and pollution
• Global warming
• Acid Rain

Chapter 23: Particle Physics and Cosmology (3 Hours)

• Particles and antiparticles
• Quarks and Leptons
• Baryons
• Mesons
• Universe – Hubble law
• Big Band
• Critical density
• Dark Matter