Physics - XII Syllabus

Physics – XII Syllabus

Unit 1: Wave and Optics (40 Teaching Hours)

A: Wave (23 Hours)

Chapter 1: Wave Motion (4 Hours)

  • Wave Motion
  • Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
  • Progressive and Stationary Waves
  • Mathematical description of a wave

Chapter 2: Mechanical Waves (5 Hours)

  • Speed of Wave Motion
  • Velocity of sound in solid and Liquid
  • Velocity of sound in gas
  • Laplace’s correction
  • Effect of temperature, pressure, humidity on velocity of sound

Chapter 3: Waves in Pipes and Strings (6 Hours)

  • Stationary waves in closed and open pipes
  • Harmonics and overtones in closed and open organ pipes
  • End correction in pipes
  • Resonance tube experiment
  • Velocity of transverse waves along a stretched string
  • Vibration of string and overtones
  • Laws of vibration of fixed string

Chapter 4: Acoustic Phenomena (8 Hours)

  • Sound waves
  • Pressure amplitude
  • Characteristics of sound
  • Intensity
  • Loudness
  • quality and pitch
  • Beats
  • Doppler’s effect
  • Infrasonic and ultrasonic waves
  • Noise pollution: Sources, health hazard and control

Physical Optics (17 Hours)

Chapter 5: Nature and Propagation of Light (6 Hours)

  • Nature and sources of light
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Huygen’s principle
  • Reflection and refraction according to wave theory
  • Velocity of light
  • Foucault’s method
  • Michelson’s Method

Chapter 6: Interference (4 Hours)

  • Phenomenon of interference
  • Coherent sources
  • Young’s two slit experiment
  • Newton’s ring

Chapter 7: Diffraction (4 Hours)

  • Diffraction from a single slit
  • Diffraction pattern of image
  • Diffraction grating
  • Resolving power of Optical Instruments

Chapter 8: Polarization

  • Phenomenon of polarization
  • Brewster’s law
  • Transverse nature of light
  • Polaroid

Unit 2: Electricity and Magnetism (55 Teaching Hours)

A: Current Electricity (20 Hours)

Chapter 9: D.C. Circuit (9 Hours)

  • Electric Currents
  • Drift velocity and its relation with current
  • Ohm’s law
  • Electrical Resistance
  • Resistivity
  • Conductivity
  • Super conductors
  • Perfect Conductors
  • Current – Voltage relations
  • Ohmic and Non- Ohmic resistance
  • Resistances in series and parallel
  • Potential Divider
  • Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter
  • Ohmmeter
  • Electromotive force
  • Emf of a source
  • Internal resistance
  • Work and power in electrical circuits
  • Joule’s law and its verification

Chapter 10: Electrical Circuits (7 Hours)

  • Kirchhoff’s laws
  • Wheatstone bridge circuit
  • O. Box
  • Meter Bridge
  • Potentiometer
  • Comparison of e.m.f’s
  • Measurement of Internal Resistance of a Cell

Chapter 11: Thermoelectric Effect (2 Hours)

  • Seebeck Effect
  • Thermocouples
  • Peltier Effect
  • Variation of thermoelectric emf with temperature
  • Thermopile
  • Thomson Effect

Chapter 12: Chemical Effect of Current (2 Hours)

  • Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
  • Faraday’s constant
  • Verification of Faraday laws of electrolysis

B: Magnetic Field of Current (35 Hours)

Chapter 13: Magnetic Field (14 Hours)

  • Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux
  • Oersted’s experiment
  • Force on moving charge
  • Force on Conductor
  • Force and Torque on rectangular coil
  • Moving coil galvanometer
  • Hall effect
  • Magnetic field of a moving charge
  • Biot and Savert law and its application to (i) a circular coil (ii) a long straight conductor (iii) a long solenoid
  • Ampere’s law and its application to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (iii) a toroidal solenoid
  • Forces between two parallel conductors carrying current
  • Definition of ampere

Chapter 14: Magnetic Properties of Materials (5 Hours)

  • Elements of earth magnetism and their variation
  • Dip and Dip circle
  • Flux density in magnetic material
  • Relative permeability
  • Susceptibility
  • Hysteresis
  • Dia-, Para- and Ferro-magnetic materials

Chapter 15: Electromagnetic Induction (8 Hours)

  • Faraday’s laws
  • Induced electric fields
  • Lenz’s law
  • Motional electromotive force
  • AC generators
  • Eddy currents
  • Self – inductance and Mutual inductance
  • Energy stored in an inductor
  • Transformer

Chapter 16: Alternating Currents

  • Peak and RMS value of AC current and voltage
  • AC through resistor, capacitor and inductor
  • Phaser diagram
  • Series circuits containing combination of resistor, capacitor and inductor
  • Series resonance
  • Quality factor
  • Power in AC circuits
  • Power factor
  • Choke coil

Modern Physics (55 Teaching Hours)

Chapter 17: Electrons and Photons (10 Hours)

Electrons:

  • Millikan’s Oil drop experiment
  • Gaseous discharge at various pressure
  • Cathode rays
  • Motion of electron beam in electric and magnetic fields
  • Thomson’s experiment to determine specific charge of electron

Photons:

  • Quantum nature of radiation
  • Einstein’s photoelectric equation
  • Stopping potential
  • Measurement of Planck’s constant: Millikan’s Experiment

Chapter 18: Solids and Semiconductor Devices (11 Hours)

  • Structure of solids
  • Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only)
  • Difference between metals, inductors and semiconductors using band theory
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors
  • P-N junction
  • Semiconductor diode
  • Characteristics in forward and reverse bias
  • Full wave rectification
  • Filter circuit
  • Zener diode
  • Transistor: Common emitter characteristics
  • Logic gates: NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR
  • Nanotechnology (Introductory Idea)

Chapter 19: Quantization of Energy (9 Hours)

  • Bohr’s theory of Hydrogen atom
  • Spectral series
  • Excitation and Ionization potentials
  • Energy level
  • Emission and absorption spectra
  • De Broglie theory: Duality
  • Uncertainty Principle
  • Lasers: He-Ne laser, Nature and production, properties and uses
  • X-rays: Nature and production
  • Uses: x-rays
  • X-rays diffraction
  • Bragg’s Law

Chapter 20: Nuclear Physics (6 Hours)

  • Nucleus: Discovery of nucleus
  • Nuclear density
  • Mass number
  • Atomic number
  • Atomic mass
  • Isotopes
  • Einstein’s mass-energy relation
  • Mass defect
  • Binding energy
  • Fission and Fusion

Chapter 21: Radioactivity (7 Hours)

  • Alpha particles
  • Beta particles
  • Gamma rays
  • Laws of radioactive disintegration
  • Half-life and decay constant
  • Geiger-Muller Tube
  • Radio Carbon dating
  • Medical use of nuclear radiation
  • Health Hazards and Safety Precautions

Chapter 22: Nuclear Energy and Other Sources of Energy (9 Hours)

  • Sources of energy
  • Conservation and degradation of energy
  • Transformation of energy
  • Nuclear energy
  • Energy released from fission and fusion
  • Thermal and hydroelectric power
  • Wind energy
  • Biofuels
  • Solar energy
  • Solar constant
  • Solar devices
  • Global energy consumption pattern and demands
  • Energy use in Nepal
  • Fuels and pollution
  • Global warming
  • Acid Rain

Chapter 23: Particle Physics and Cosmology (3 Hours)

  • Particles and antiparticles
  • Quarks and Leptons
  • Baryons
  • Mesons
  • Universe – Hubble law
  • Big Band
  • Critical density
  • Dark Matter