# Physics - XI Syllabus

**Secondary Education Curriculum**

**2076**

**Physics**

**Content Area: Mechanics**

**1. Physical Quantities – 3 Teaching Hours**

- Precision and significant figures.

Dimensions and uses of

dimensional analysis.

**2. Vectors – 4 Teaching Hours**

- Triangle, parallelogram and polygon laws of vectors
- Resolution of vectors; Unit vectors
- Scalar and vector products.

**3. Kinematics – 5 Teaching Hours**

- Instantaneous velocity and acceleration
- Relative velocity
- Equation of motion (graphical treatment)
- Motion of a freely falling body
- Projectile motion and its applications.

**4. Dynamics – 6 Teaching Hours**

- Linear momentum, Impulse
- Conservation of linear momentum
- Application of Newton’s laws
- Moment, torque and equilibrium
- Solid friction: Laws of solid friction and their verifications.

**5. Work, energy and power – 6 Teaching Hours**

- Work done by a constant force and a variable force
- Power
- Work-energy theorem; Kinetic and potential energy
- Conservation of Energy
- Conservative and non-conservative forces
- Elastic and inelastic collisions.

**6. Circular Motion – 6 Teaching Hours**

- Angular displacement, velocity and acceleration
- Relation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration
- Centripetal acceleration
- Centripetal force
- Conical pendulum
- Motion in a vertical circle
- Applications of banking.

**7. Gravitation – 10 Teaching Hours**

- Newton’s law of gravitation
- Gravitational field strength
- Gravitational potential; Gravitational potential energy
- Variation in value of ‘g’ due to altitude and depth
- Centre of mass and center of gravity
- Motion of a satellite: Orbital velocity and time period of the satellite
- Escape velocity
- Potential and kinetic energy of the satellite
- Geostationary satellite
- GPS

**8. Elasticity – 5 Teaching Hours**

- Hooke’s law: Force constant
- Stress; Strain; Elasticity and plasticity
- Elastic modulus: Young modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus
- Poisson’s ratio
- Elastic potential energy.

**Content Area: Heat and Thermodynamics**

**9. Heat and Temperature – 3 Teaching Hours**

- Molecular concept of thermal energy, heat and temperature, and cause and direction of heat flow
- Meaning of thermal equilibrium and Zeroth law of thermodynamics.
- Thermal equilibrium as a working principle of mercury thermometer.

**10. Thermal Expansion – 4 Teaching Hours**

- Linear expansion and its measurement
- Cubical expansion, superficial expansion and its relation with linear expansion
- Liquid Expansion: Absolute and apparent
- Dulong and Petit method of determining expansivity of liquid

**11. Quantity of Heat – 6 Teaching Hours**

- Newton’s law of cooling
- Measurement of specific heat capacity of solids and liquids
- Change of phases: Latent heat
- Specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization
- Measurement of specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization
- Triple point

**12. Rate of heat flow – 5 Teaching Hours**

- Conduction: Thermal conductivity and measurement
- Convection
- Radiation: Ideal radiator
- Black- body radiation
- Stefan – Boltzmann law.

**13. Ideal gas – 8 Teaching Hours**

- Ideal gas equation
- Molecular properties of matter
- Kinetic-molecular model of an ideal gas
- Derivation of pressure exerted by gas,
- Average translational kinetic energy of gas molecule
- Boltzmann constant, root mean square speed
- Heat capacities: gases and solids.

**Content Area: Waves & Optics**

**14. Reflection at curved mirror – 2 Teaching Hours**

- Real and Virtual images.
- Mirror formula

**15. Refraction at plane surfaces – 4 Teaching Hours**

- Laws of refraction: Refractive index
- Relation between refractive indices
- Lateral shift
- Total internal reflection.

**16. Refraction through prisms – 3 Teaching Hours**

- Minimum deviation condition
- Relation between Angle of prism, minimum deviation and refractive index
- Deviation in small angle prism.

**17. Lenses – 3 Teaching Hours**

- Spherical lenses, angular magnification
- Lens maker’s formula
- Power of a lens

**18. Dispersion – 3 Teaching Hours**

- Pure spectrum and dispersive power
- Chromatic and spherical aberration
- Achromatism and its applications

**Content Area: Electricity & Magnetism**

**19. Electric Charges – 3 Teaching Hours**

- Electric charges
- Charging by induction
- Coulomb’s law- Force between two point charges
- Force between multiple electric charges.

**20. Electric Field – 3 Teaching Hours**

- Electric field due to point charges, Field lines
- Gauss Law: Electric Flux
- Application of Gauss law: Field of a charge sphere, line charge, charged plane conductor

**21. Potential, potential difference and potential energy – 4 Teaching Hours**

- Potential difference, Potential due to a point, Charge, potential energy, electron volt
- Equipotential lines and surfaces
- Potential gradient

**22. Capacitor – 7 Teaching Hours**

- Capacitance and capacitor
- Parallel plate capacitor
- Combination of capacitors
- Energy of charged capacitor
- Effect of a dielectric Polarization and displacement.

**23. DC Circuits – 10 Teaching Hours**

- Electric Currents; Drift velocity and its relation with current
- Ohm’s law; Electrical Resistance; Resistivity; Conductivity
- Current-voltage relations; Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistance
- Resistances in series and parallel,
- Potential divider
- Electromotive force of a source, internal resistance
- Work and power in electrical circuits

**Content Area: Modern Physics**

**24. Nuclear Physics – 6 Teaching Hours**

- Nucleus: Discovery of nucleus
- Nuclear density; Mass number; Atomic number
- Atomic mass; Isotopes
- Einstein’s mass-energy relation
- Mass Defect, packing fraction, BE per nucleon
- Creation and annihilation
- Nuclear fission and fusion, energy released

**25. Solids – 3 Teaching Hours**

- Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas)
- Difference between metals, insulators and semi-conductors using band theory
- Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors

**26. Recent Trends in physics – 6 Teaching Hours**

*Particle physics:*Particles and antiparticles, Quarks (baryons and meson) and leptons (neutrinos)*Universe:*Big Bang and Hubble law: expansion of the Universe, Dark matter, Black Hole and gravitational wave

**Practical Courses [32 Hours]**

**a) Practical Activities for Grade 11**

**I. Mechanics**

1. Verify the law of moments by graphically analyzing the relation between clockwise moment and anticlockwise moment on a half metre rule suspended at the centre by a string.

2. Determination of the coefficient of friction for the two surfaces by graphically analyzing how minimum force needed to set a trolley resting on plan horizontal surface to motion varies with its mass.

3. Determination of young modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire by graphically analyzing the variation of tensile force with respect to extension produced by it.

**II. Heat**

4. Use of Pullinger’s apparatus for the Determination of the linear

expansivity of a rod.

5. Use of Regnault’s apparatus to determination of the specific heat capacity of a solid by

the method of mixture.

6. Determination of the thermal conductivity of a good conductor by Searle’s method.

**III. Geometrical Optics**

7. Use of rectangular glass slab to determine the thickness of the slab by

graphically analyzing how lateral shift varies with the angle of

incidence.

8. Use of Travelling Microscope for the determination of the refractive index of glass slab

by graphically analyzing how apparent depth varies with the real depth for glass plates

of different thicknesses.

9. Determination of the focal length of a concave mirror by graphically analyzing the

variation of image distance with respect to object distance.

**IV. Current electricity**

10. Verification of Ohm’s law and determination of resistance of a thin-film resistor by

graphical analysis of variation of electric current in the resistor with respect to potential

difference across it.

11. Determination of resistivity of a metal wire by graphical analysis of variation of

electric current through a metal wire against its length.

1. Investigation of I-V characteristics of a heating coil by graphically analyzing the

variation of electric current though a light bulb with respect to the potential difference

across it.

**b) Sample project works for grade 11**

1. Study the variation in the range of a jet of water with angle of projection

2. Study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid

3. Study the nature and size of the image formed by a convex lens using a candle and a

screen.

4. Study of uses of alternative energy sources in Nepal

5. Study of energy consumption patterns in the neighborhood.

6. Study of study of electricity consumption pattern in the neighborhood.

7. Study of application of laws and principle of physics in any indigenous technology.

8. Verification of the laws of solid friction.

9. Study the temperature dependence of refractive index of different liquids using a hollow prism and laser beam.

10. Study the frequency dependence of refractive index of glass using a glass prism and

white light beam.

**c) Some examples of innovative works for grade 11**

1. Construct a hygrometer using dry and wet bulb thermometers and use it to measure

relative humidity of a given place.

2. Design and construct a system to demonstrate the phenomenon of total internal

reflection (TIR) of a laser beam through a jet of water.

3. Construct a digital Newton meter using the concept of potential divider.