# Physics - XI Syllabus

**Physics – XI Syllabus**

## Unit 1: Mechanics (70 Teaching Hours)

**Chapter 1: Physical Quantities (3 Hours)**

- Need for measurements
- System of Units
- SI Unit
- Precision and Significant Figures
- Dimensions
- Main Use of Dimensional Equations

**Chapter 2: Vectors (6 Hours)**

- Graphical representation of vectors
- addition and subtraction of vectors
- parallelogram, triangle and polygon law of vectors
- resolution of vectors
- unit vectors
- Scalar and Vector Products

**Chapter 3: Kinematics (3 Hours)**

- Uniform and non-uniform motion
- average velocity and acceleration
- instantaneous velocity and acceleration
- equation of motion (graphical treatment)
- motion of a freely falling body
- relative velocity
- Projectile Motion

**Chapter 4: Laws of Motion (8 Hours)**

- Newton’s laws of motion
- Inertia
- Force
- linear momentum and impulse
- Conservation of Linear Momentum
- free body diagrams
- solid frictions
- laws of solid friction and their verifications
- application of Newton’s laws
- particles in equilibrium
- Dynamics of Particles

**Chapter 5: Work and Energy (4 Hours)**

- Work
- work – done by a constant force and a variable Force
- power
- energy: kinetic energy
- work – energy theorem
- potential energy
- conservation of energy
- conservative and non-conservative forces
- Elastic and Inelastic Collision

**Chapter 6: Circular Motion (5 Hours)**

- Angular displacement
- velocity and acceleration
- relation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration
- centripetal acceleration
- centripetal force
- conical pendulum
- motion in a vertical circle
- Motion of cars and cyclist Round up track

**Chapter 7: Gravitation (9 Hours)**

- Newton’s laws of gravitation
- acceleration due to gravity
- the mass and weight
- gravitational field strength
- variation in value of g due to altitude, depth and rotation of earth
- weightlessness
- motion of a satellite
- orbital velocity
- height and time period of a satellite
- geostationary satellite
- potential and kinetic energy of a satellite
- gravitational potential
- gravitational potential energy
- escape velocity
- Black Holes

**Chapter 8: Equilibrium (2 Hours)**

- Moment of Forces
- torque
- torque due to a couple
- centre of mass
- centre of gravity
- Conditions of Equilibrium

**Chapter 9: Rotational Dynamics (8 Hours)**

- rotation of rigid bodies
- equation of angular motion
- relation between linear and angular kinematics
- Kinetic energy of rotation of rigid bodies
- Moment of inertia
- Radius of gyration
- Moment of inertia of a uniform rod
- Torque and angular acceleration for a rigid body
- work and power in rotational motion
- Angular momentum
- Conservation of Angular Momentum

**Chapter 10: Elasticity (6 Hours)**

- Hooke’s law
- Force constant
- Verification of Hooke’s law
- Stress / Strain
- Elasticity and Plasticity
- Elastic modulus: Young modulus and its determination
- Bulk modulus, Shear modulus
- Poisson’s ratio
- Elastic Potential Energy

**Chapter 11: Periodic Motion (6 Hours)**

- Oscillatory Motion
- Circle of reference
- Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
- Energy of SHM
- Application of SHM
- Motion of a body suspended from coiled spring
- Angular SHM
- Simple Pendulum
- Damped Oscillation
- Forced Oscillation
- Resonance

**Chapter 12: Fluid Mechanics (10 Hours)**

**Fluid Statics:**

- Density
- Pressure in a fluid
- Archimedes Principle
- Buoyancy

**Surface Tension:**

- Molecular Theory of Surface Tension
- Surface Energy
- Angle of contact and capillarity
- Measurement of coefficient of surface tension by capillary tube method.

**Fluid Dynamics:**

- Newton’s formula for viscosity in a liquid
- Coefficient of viscosity
- Laminar and turbulent flow
- Poiseuille’s formula (method of dimensions)
- Stokes Law and its applications
- Measurement of viscosity of viscous liquid
- Equation of continuity
- Bernoulli’s Equation and its applications

## Unit 2: Heat and Thermodynamics (40 Teaching Hours)

**Chapter 13: Heat and Temperature (5 Hours)**

- Concept of Temperature
- Thermal Equilibrium
- Thermal Expansion
- Linear Expansion
- Cubical Expansions and their relation
- Measurement of Linear Expansivity
- Liquid Expansion
- Absolute and apparent expansion of liquid
- Measurement of Absolute Expansivity by Dulong and Petit Method

**Chapter 14: Quantity of Heat (5 Hours)**

- Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity
- Newton’s Law of Cooling
- Measurement of Specific Heat Capacity of Solids by Method of Mixture and of Liquids by the Method of Cooling
- Change of Phases
- Latent Heat
- Specific Latent Heat of Fusion and Vaporization and their Measurement by the Method of Mixture

**Chapter 15: Thermal Properties of Matter (8 Hours)**

- Equation of State
- Ideal gas equation
- P – V diagram
- Molecular Properties of Matter
- Kinetic – molecular model of an ideal gas
- Derivation of Pressure exerted by gas
- Average Translational Kinetic Energy of a gas molecule
- Boltzmann Constant
- Root mean square speed
- Heat Capacities: Heat Capacities of Gases and Solids

**Chapter 16: Hygrometry (3 Hours)**

- Saturated and Unsaturated Vapor Pressure
- Behaviour of Saturated Vapor
- Boiling Point
- Triple Point and Critical Point
- Dew Point
- Absolute Humidity
- Relative Humidity and Its Determination

**Chapter 17: Transfer of Heat (4 Hours)**

- Conduction
- Thermal conductivity and its determination by Searle’s method
- Convection: convective coefficient
- Radiation: Ideal radiator
- Black body radiation
- Stefan – Boltzmann Law

**Chapter 18: First Law of Thermodynamics (9 Hours)**

- Thermodynamic systems
- Work done during volume change
- Heat and work
- Internal energy
- First law of thermodynamics
- Thermodynamic processes: Adiabatic, Isochoric, Isothermal, Isobaric processes
- Heat capacities of ideal gas at constant pressure and volume and relation between them
- Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas

**Chapter 19: Second Law of Thermodynamics (6 Hours)**

- Direction of thermodynamic process
- Second law of thermodynamics
- Heat engines
- Internal combustion engines
- Otto cycle
- Diesel cycle
- Carnot cycle
- Kelvin temperature scale
- Refrigerators
- Entropy and Disorder (Introduction Only)

## Unit 3: Geometrical Optics (20 Teaching Hours)

**Chapter 20: Photometry, Reflection at Curved Mirror (2 Hours)**

- Convex and Concave Mirrors
- Image in Spherical Mirrors
- Mirrors Formula
- Real and Virtual Images

**Chapter 21: Refraction at Plane Surfaces (3 Hours)**

- Laws of Refraction
- Refractive Index
- Relation between Refractive Indices
- Lateral Shift
- Total Internal Reflection and its Applications
- Critical Angle
- Optical Fibre

**Chapter 22: Refraction through Prisms (3 Hours)**

- Minimum deviation
- Relation between angle of prism, minimum deviation and refractive index
- Deviation in small angle prism

**Chapter 23: Lenses (4 Hours)**

- Spherical lenses
- Thin lens formula
- Lens maker’s formula
- Power of a lens
- Combination of Thin Lenses in Contact

**Chapter 24: Dispersion (3 Hours)**

- Spectrum
- Spectrometer
- Pure spectrum
- Dispersive power
- Achromatic lenses
- Condition for achromatic lenses in contact
- Chromatic aberration
- Spherical aberration
- Scattering of light
- Blue Color of Sky

**Chapter 25: Optical Instruments (5 Hours)**

- The human eye
- Defects of vision and their correction
- Visual angle
- Angular magnification
- Magnifier
- Camera
- Compound microscope
- Astronomical Telescope (Reflection and Refraction Type)

## Unit 4: Electrostatics (20 Teaching Hours)

**Chapter 26: Electrostatics, Electric Field & Potential (13 Hours)**

**Electric Charge:**

- Electric charges
- Conductors and insulators
- Charging by induction
- Coulomb’s law
- Force between two-point charges
- Force between multiple electric charges

**Electric Fields:**

- Calculation of electric field due to point charges
- Field lines

**Gauss Law:**

- Electric Flux
- Gauss Law and its application
- Field of a charged sphere, line charge, plane sheet of charge

**Potential and Potential Difference:**

- Potential due to a point charge
- Equipotential lines and surfaces
- Potential gradient
- Potential energy
- Electron Volt

**Chapter 27: Capacitance and Dielectrics (7 Hours)**

- Capacitance and capacitor
- Charging and discharging of capacitor through a resistor
- Parallel plate capacitor
- Combination of capacitors
- Energy of charged capacitor
- Effect of a dielectric
- Molecular theory of induced charges
- Polarization and Displacement