# Physics – XI Syllabus

## Unit 1: Mechanics (70 Teaching Hours)

Chapter 1: Physical Quantities (3 Hours)

• Need for measurements
• System of Units
• SI Unit
• Precision and Significant Figures
• Dimensions
• Main Use of Dimensional Equations

Chapter 2: Vectors (6 Hours)

• Graphical representation of vectors
• addition and subtraction of vectors
• parallelogram, triangle and polygon law of vectors
• resolution of vectors
• unit vectors
• Scalar and Vector Products

Chapter 3: Kinematics (3 Hours)

• Uniform and non-uniform motion
• average velocity and acceleration
• instantaneous velocity and acceleration
• equation of motion (graphical treatment)
• motion of a freely falling body
• relative velocity
• Projectile Motion

Chapter 4: Laws of Motion (8 Hours)

• Newton’s laws of motion
• Inertia
• Force
• linear momentum and impulse
• Conservation of Linear Momentum
• free body diagrams
• solid frictions
• laws of solid friction and their verifications
• application of Newton’s laws
• particles in equilibrium
• Dynamics of Particles

Chapter 5: Work and Energy (4 Hours)

• Work
• work – done by a constant force and a variable Force
• power
• energy: kinetic energy
• work – energy theorem
• potential energy
• conservation of energy
• conservative and non-conservative forces
• Elastic and Inelastic Collision

Chapter 6: Circular Motion (5 Hours)

• Angular displacement
• velocity and acceleration
• relation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration
• centripetal acceleration
• centripetal force
• conical pendulum
• motion in a vertical circle
• Motion of cars and cyclist Round up track

Chapter 7: Gravitation (9 Hours)

• Newton’s laws of gravitation
• acceleration due to gravity
• the mass and weight
• gravitational field strength
• variation in value of g due to altitude, depth and rotation of earth
• weightlessness
• motion of a satellite
• orbital velocity
• height and time period of a satellite
• geostationary satellite
• potential and kinetic energy of a satellite
• gravitational potential
• gravitational potential energy
• escape velocity
• Black Holes

Chapter 8: Equilibrium (2 Hours)

• Moment of Forces
• torque
• torque due to a couple
• centre of mass
• centre of gravity
• Conditions of Equilibrium

Chapter 9: Rotational Dynamics (8 Hours)

• rotation of rigid bodies
• equation of angular motion
• relation between linear and angular kinematics
• Kinetic energy of rotation of rigid bodies
• Moment of inertia
• Moment of inertia of a uniform rod
• Torque and angular acceleration for a rigid body
• work and power in rotational motion
• Angular momentum
• Conservation of Angular Momentum

Chapter 10: Elasticity (6 Hours)

• Hooke’s law
• Force constant
• Verification of Hooke’s law
• Stress / Strain
• Elasticity and Plasticity
• Elastic modulus: Young modulus and its determination
• Bulk modulus, Shear modulus
• Poisson’s ratio
• Elastic Potential Energy

Chapter 11: Periodic Motion (6 Hours)

• Oscillatory Motion
• Circle of reference
• Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
• Energy of SHM
• Application of SHM
• Motion of a body suspended from coiled spring
• Angular SHM
• Simple Pendulum
• Damped Oscillation
• Forced Oscillation
• Resonance

Chapter 12: Fluid Mechanics (10 Hours)

Fluid Statics:

• Density
• Pressure in a fluid
• Archimedes Principle
• Buoyancy

Surface Tension:

• Molecular Theory of Surface Tension
• Surface Energy
• Angle of contact and capillarity
• Measurement of coefficient of surface tension by capillary tube method.

Fluid Dynamics:

• Newton’s formula for viscosity in a liquid
• Coefficient of viscosity
• Laminar and turbulent flow
• Poiseuille’s formula (method of dimensions)
• Stokes Law and its applications
• Measurement of viscosity of viscous liquid
• Equation of continuity
• Bernoulli’s Equation and its applications

## Unit 2: Heat and Thermodynamics (40 Teaching Hours)

Chapter 13: Heat and Temperature (5 Hours)

• Concept of Temperature
• Thermal Equilibrium
• Thermal Expansion
• Linear Expansion
• Cubical Expansions and their relation
• Measurement of Linear Expansivity
• Liquid Expansion
• Absolute and apparent expansion of liquid
• Measurement of Absolute Expansivity by Dulong and Petit Method

Chapter 14: Quantity of Heat (5 Hours)

• Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Capacity
• Newton’s Law of Cooling
• Measurement of Specific Heat Capacity of Solids by Method of Mixture and of Liquids by the Method of Cooling
• Change of Phases
• Latent Heat
• Specific Latent Heat of Fusion and Vaporization and their Measurement by the Method of Mixture

Chapter 15: Thermal Properties of Matter (8 Hours)

• Equation of State
• Ideal gas equation
• P – V diagram
• Molecular Properties of Matter
• Kinetic – molecular model of an ideal gas
• Derivation of Pressure exerted by gas
• Average Translational Kinetic Energy of a gas molecule
• Boltzmann Constant
• Root mean square speed
• Heat Capacities: Heat Capacities of Gases and Solids

Chapter 16: Hygrometry (3 Hours)

• Saturated and Unsaturated Vapor Pressure
• Behaviour of Saturated Vapor
• Boiling Point
• Triple Point and Critical Point
• Dew Point
• Absolute Humidity
• Relative Humidity and Its Determination

Chapter 17: Transfer of Heat (4 Hours)

• Conduction
• Thermal conductivity and its determination by Searle’s method
• Convection: convective coefficient
• Stefan – Boltzmann Law

Chapter 18: First Law of Thermodynamics (9 Hours)

• Thermodynamic systems
• Work done during volume change
• Heat and work
• Internal energy
• First law of thermodynamics
• Thermodynamic processes: Adiabatic, Isochoric, Isothermal, Isobaric processes
• Heat capacities of ideal gas at constant pressure and volume and relation between them
• Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas

Chapter 19: Second Law of Thermodynamics (6 Hours)

• Direction of thermodynamic process
• Second law of thermodynamics
• Heat engines
• Internal combustion engines
• Otto cycle
• Diesel cycle
• Carnot cycle
• Kelvin temperature scale
• Refrigerators
• Entropy and Disorder (Introduction Only)

## Unit 3: Geometrical Optics (20 Teaching Hours)

Chapter 20: Photometry, Reflection at Curved Mirror (2 Hours)

• Convex and Concave Mirrors
• Image in Spherical Mirrors
• Mirrors Formula
• Real and Virtual Images

Chapter 21: Refraction at Plane Surfaces (3 Hours)

• Laws of Refraction
• Refractive Index
• Relation between Refractive Indices
• Lateral Shift
• Total Internal Reflection and its Applications
• Critical Angle
• Optical Fibre

Chapter 22: Refraction through Prisms (3 Hours)

• Minimum deviation
• Relation between angle of prism, minimum deviation and refractive index
• Deviation in small angle prism

Chapter 23: Lenses (4 Hours)

• Spherical lenses
• Thin lens formula
• Lens maker’s formula
• Power of a lens
• Combination of Thin Lenses in Contact

Chapter 24: Dispersion (3 Hours)

• Spectrum
• Spectrometer
• Pure spectrum
• Dispersive power
• Achromatic lenses
• Condition for achromatic lenses in contact
• Chromatic aberration
• Spherical aberration
• Scattering of light
• Blue Color of Sky

Chapter 25: Optical Instruments (5 Hours)

• The human eye
• Defects of vision and their correction
• Visual angle
• Angular magnification
• Magnifier
• Camera
• Compound microscope
• Astronomical Telescope (Reflection and Refraction Type)

## Unit 4: Electrostatics (20 Teaching Hours)

Chapter 26: Electrostatics, Electric Field & Potential (13 Hours)

Electric Charge:

• Electric charges
• Conductors and insulators
• Charging by induction
• Coulomb’s law
• Force between two-point charges
• Force between multiple electric charges

Electric Fields:

• Calculation of electric field due to point charges
• Field lines

Gauss Law:

• Electric Flux
• Gauss Law and its application
• Field of a charged sphere, line charge, plane sheet of charge

Potential and Potential Difference:

• Potential due to a point charge
• Equipotential lines and surfaces