Chemistry - XI Syllabus

Content Area: General and Physical Chemistry

1. Foundation and Fundamentals – 2 Teaching Hours

  • General introduction of chemistry
  • Importance and scope of chemistry
  • Basic concepts of chemistry (atoms, molecules, relative masses of atoms and molecules, atomic mass unit ( amu), radicals, molecular formula, empirical formula )
  • Percentage composition from molecular formula

2. Stoichiometry – 8 Teaching Hours

  • Dalton’s atomic theory and its postulates
  • Laws of stoichiometry
  • Avogadro’s law and some deductions
    • Molecular mass and vapour density
    • Molecular mass and volume of gas
    • Molecular mass and no. of particles
  • Mole and its relation with mass, volume and number of particles
  • Calculations based on mole concept
  • Limiting reactant and excess reactant
  • Theoretical yield, experimental yield and % yield
  • Calculation of empirical and molecular formula from % composition (Solving related numerical problems)

3. Atomic Structure – 8 Teaching Hours

  • Rutherford’s atomic model
  • Limitations of Rutherford’s atomic model
  • Postulates of Bohr’s atomic model and its application
  • Spectrum of hydrogen atom
  • Defects of Bohr’s theory
  • Elementary idea of quantum mechanical model: de Broglie’s wave equation
  • Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
  • Concept of probability
  • Quantum Numbers
  • Orbitals and shape of s and p orbitals only
  • Aufbau Principle
  • Pauli’s exclusion principle
  • Hund’s rule and electronic configurations of atoms and ions (up to atomic no. 30)

4. Classification of elements and Periodic Table – 5 Teaching Hours

  • Modern periodic law and modern periodic table
    • Classification of elements into different groups, periods and blocks
  • IUPAC classification of elements
  • Nuclear charge and effective nuclear charge
  • Periodic trend and periodicity
    • Atomic radii
    • Ionic radii
    • Ionization energy
    • Electron affinity
    • Electronegativity
    • Metallic characters (General trend and explanation only)

5. Chemical Bonding and Shapes of Molecules – 9 Teaching Hours

  • Valence shell, valence electron and octet theory
  • Ionic bond and its properties
  • Covalent bond and coordinate covalent bond
  • Properties of covalent compounds
  • Lewis dot structure of some common compounds of s and p block elements
  • Resonance
  • VSEPR theory and shapes of some simple molecules (BeF_2, BF_3, CH_4, CH_3Cl, PCl_5, SF_6, H_2O,NH_3,CO_2,H_2S, PH_3)
  • Elementary idea of Valence Bond Theory
  • Hybridization involving s and p orbitals only
  • Bond characteristics:
    • Bond length
    • Ionic character
    • Dipole moment
  • Vander Waal’s force and molecular solids
  • Hydrogen bonding and its application
  • Metallic bonding and properties of metallic solids

6. Oxidation and Reduction – 5 Teaching Hours

  • General and electronic concept of oxidation and reduction
  • Oxidation number and rules for assigning oxidation number
  • Balancing redox reactions by oxidation number and ion-electron (half reaction) method
  • Electrolysis
    • Qualitative aspect
    • Quantitative aspect(Faradays laws of electrolysis)

7 States of Matter – 8 Teaching Hours

  • Gaseous state
    • Kinetic theory of gas and its postulates
    • Gas laws
      • Boyle’s law and Charles’ law
      • Avogadro’s law
      • Combined gas equation
      • Dalton’s law of partial pressure
      • Graham’s law of diffusion
    • Ideal gas and ideal gas equation
    • Universal gas constant and its significance
    • Deviation of real gas from ideality (Solving related numerical problems based on gas laws)
  • Liquid state
    • Physical properties of liquids
      • Evaporation and condensation
      • Vapour pressure and boiling point
      • Surface tension and viscosity (qualitative idea only)
    • Liquid crystals and their applications
  • Solid state
    • Types of solids
    • Amorphous and crystalline solids
    • Efflorescent, Deliquescent and Hygroscopic solids
    • Crystallization and crystal growth
    • Water of crystallization
    • Introduction to unit crystal lattice and unit cell 

8. Chemical equilibrium – 3 Teaching Hours

  • Physical and chemical equilibrium
  • Dynamic nature of chemical equilibrium
  • Law of mass action
  • Expression for equilibrium constant and its importance
  • Relationship between Kp and Kc
  • Le Chatelier’s Principle
  • (Numericals not required)

Content Area: Inorganic Chemistry

9. Chemistry of Non-metals – 4 Teaching Hours

  • Hydrogen
    • Chemistry of atomic and nascent hydrogen
    • Isotopes of hydrogen and their uses
    • Application of hydrogen as fuel
    • Heavy water and its applications
  • Allotropes of Oxygen
    • Definition of allotropy and examples
    • Oxygen: Types of oxides (acidic, basic, neutral, amphoteric, peroxide and mixed oxides)
    • Applications of hydrogen peroxide
    • Medical and industrial application of oxygen
  • Ozone
    • Occurrence
    • Preparation of ozone from oxygen
    • Structure of ozone
    • Test for ozone
    • Ozone layer depletion (causes, effects and control measures)
    • Uses of ozone
  • Nitrogen
    • Reason for inertness of nitrogen and active nitrogen
    • Chemical properties of ammonia [ Action with CuSO_4 solution, water, FeCl_3 solution, Conc. HCl, Mercurous nitrate paper, O_2 ]
    • Applications of ammonia
    • Harmful effects of ammonia
    • Oxy-acids of nitrogen (name and formula)
    • Chemical properties of nitric acid [HNO_3 as an acid and oxidizing agent (action with zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, sulphur, carbon, SO_2 and H_2S)
    • Ring test for nitrate ion
  • Halogens
    • General characteristics of halogens
    • Comparative study on preparation (no diagram and description is required),
      • Chemical properties [with water, alkali, ammonia, oxidizing character, bleaching action] and uses of halogens (Cl_2, Br_2 and I_2)
    • Test for Cl_2, Br_2 and I_2
    • Comparative study on preparation (no diagram and description is required), properties ( reducing strength, acidic nature and solubility) and uses of haloacids (HCl, HBr and HI)
  • Carbon
    • Allotropes of carbon (crystalline and amorphous) including fullerenes (structure, general properties and uses only)
    • Properties (reducing action, reaction with metals and nonmetals) and uses of carbon monoxide
  • Phosphorus
    • Allotropes of phosphorus (name only)
    • Preparation (no diagram and description is required), properties ( basic nature ,reducing nature, action with halogens and oxygen) and uses of phosphine
  • Sulphur
    • Allotropes of sulphur (name only) and uses of sulphur
    • Hydrogen sulphide (preparation from Kipp’s apparatus with diagram,) properties (Acidic nature, reducing nature, analytical reagent) and uses
    • Sulphur dioxide its properties (acidic nature, reducing nature, oxidising nature and bleaching action) and uses
    • Sulphuric acid and its properties (acidic nature, oxidising nature, dehydrating nature) and uses
    • Sodium thiosulphate (formula and uses)

10 Chemistry of Metals – 5 Teaching Hours

  • Metals and Metallurgical Principles
    • Definition of metallurgy and its types (hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, electrometallurgy)
    • Introduction of ores
    • Gangue or matrix, flux and slag, alloy and amalgam
    • General principles of extraction of metals (different processes involved in metallurgy) – concentration, calcination and roasting, smelting, carbon reduction, thermite and electrochemical reduction
    • Refining of metals (poling and electro-refinement)
  • Alkali Metals
    • General characteristics of alkali metals
    • Sodium [extraction from Down’s process, properties (action with Oxygen, water, acids nonmetals and ammonia) and uses]
    • Properties (precipitation reaction and action with carbon monooxide) and uses of sodium hydroxide
    • Properties (action with CO_2, SO_2, water, precipitation reactions) and uses of sodium carbonate
  • Alkaline Earth Metals
    • General characteristics of alkaline earth metals
    • Molecular formula and uses of (quick lime, bleaching powder, magnesia, plaster of paris and epsom salt)
    • Solubility of hydroxides, carbonates and sulphates of alkaline earth metals (general trend with explanation)
    • Stability of carbonate and nitrate of alkaline earth metals (general trend with explanation)

11. Bio-inorganic Chemistry
11. Introduction to Bio-inorganic Chemistry – 3 Teaching Hours

  • Introduction
  • Micro and macro nutrients
  • Importance of metal ions in biological systems (ions of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr)
  • Ion pumps (sodium-potassium and sodium-glucose pump)
  • Metal toxicity (toxicity due to iron, arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium)

Content Area: Organic Chemistry

12 Basic Concept of Organic Chemistry – 6 Teaching Hours

  • Introduction to organic chemistry and organic compounds
  • Reasons for the separate study of organic compounds from inorganic compounds
  • Tetra-covalency and catenation properties of carbon
  • Classification of organic compounds
  • Alkyl groups, functional groups and homologous series
  • Idea of structural formula, contracted formula and bond line structural formula
  • Preliminary idea of cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline, octane number, cetane number and gasoline additive

13 Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry – 10 Teaching Hours

  • IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (upto chain having 6- carbon atoms)
  • Qualitative analysis of organic compounds (detection of N, S and halogens by Lassaigne’s test)
  • Isomerism in Organic Compounds
  • Definition and classification of isomerism
  • Structural isomerism and its types: chain isomerism, position isomerism, functional isomerism, metamerism and tautomerism
  • Concept of geometrical isomerism (cis & trans) & optical isomerism (d & l form)
  • Preliminary Idea of Reaction Mechanism
    • Homolytic and heterolytic fission
    • Electrophiles, nucleophiles and free- radicals
    • Inductive effect: +I and –I effect
    • Resonance effect: +R and –R effect

14. Hydrocarbons – 8 Teaching Hours

  • Saturated Hydrocarbons (Alkanes)
    • Alkanes: Preparation from haloalkanes (Reduction and Wurtz reaction), Decarboxylation, Catalytic hydrogenation of alkene and alkyne
    • Chemical properties: Substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration & sulphonation only), oxidation of ethane
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkenes & Alkynes)
    • Alkenes: Preparation by Dehydration of alcohol, Dehydrohalogenation, Catalytic hydrogenation of alkyne
      • Chemical properties: Addition reaction with HX (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), H_2O, O_3, H_2SO_4 only
  • Alkynes: Preparation from carbon and hydrogen, 1,2 dibromoethane, chloroform/iodoform only
    • Chemical properties: Addition reaction with (H_2, HX, H_2O), Acidic nature (action with Sodium, ammoniacal AgNO_3 and ammoniacal Cu_2Cl_2)
  • Test of unsaturation (ethene & ethyne): bromine water test and Baeyer’s test
  • Comparative studies of physical properties of alkane, alkene and alkyne
  • Kolbe’s electrolysis methods for the preparation of alkane, alkene and alkynes

15. Aromatic Hydrocarbons – 6 Teaching Hours

  • Introduction and characteristics of aromatic compounds
  • Huckel’s rule of aromaticity
  • Kekule structure of benzene
  • Resonance and isomerism
  • Preparation of benzene from decarboxylation of sodium benzoate, phenol, and ethyne only
  • Physical properties of benzene
  • Chemical properties of benzene: Addition reaction: hydrogen, halogen, Electrophilic substitution reactions: orientation of benzene derivatives (o, m & p), nitration, sulphonation, halogenations, Friedal-Craft’s reaction (alkylation and acylation), combustion of benzene ( free combustion only) and uses

Content Area: Applied Chemistry

Unit: 16 Fundamentals of Applied Chemistry – 4 Teaching Hours

  • Fundamentals of Applied Chemistry
    • Chemical industry and its importance
    • Stages in producing a new product
    • Economics of production
    • Cash flow in the production cycle
    • Running a chemical plant
    • Designing a chemical plant
    • Continuous and batch processing
    • Environmental impact of the chemical industry

Unit: 17 Modern Chemical Manufactures – 11 Teaching Hours

  • Modern Chemical Manufactures (principle and flow sheet diagram only)
    • Manufacture of ammonia by Haber’s process,
    • Manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald’s process,
    • Manufacture of sulphuric acid by contact process,
    • Manufacture of sodium hydroxide by Diaphragm Cell
    • Manufacture of sodium carbonate by ammonia soda or Solvay process
  • Fertilizers (Chemical fertilizers, types of chemical fertilizers, production of urea with flow-sheet diagram)

5. Practical Portion (32 Teaching hours)

a) List of Experiments for grade 11
A. Experiments based on laboratory techniques:

1. To separate the insoluble component in pure and dry state from the given mixture of soluble and insoluble solids (NaCl, sand and camphor).
2. To separate a mixture of two soluble solids by fractional crystallization (KNO_3 + NaCl).
3. To prepare a saturated solution of impure salt and obtain the pure crystal of the same salt by crystallization.
4. To separate the component of a mixture of two insoluble solids (one being soluble in dil. acids).
5. To determine the number of water of crystallization of hydrated crystals.
6. To determine the volume occupied by 1 mole of hydrogen gas at NTP. (Wt of Mg = ……g).
7. To obtain pure water from given sample of impure water (Distillation).

B. Experiments to study the different types of reactions (Neutralization, Precipitation, Redox reaction and Electrolysis):
8. To carry out the following chemical reactions, represent them in molecular as well as ionic forms and write the colour of the products formed:

a. Ferrous sulphate solution + ammonia solution
b. Ferric chloride solution + ammonia solution
c. Copper sulphate solution + sodium hydroxide solution (heat the mixture)
d. Copper sulphate solution + ammonia solution (add ammonia drop by drop at first and then excess)
e. Ferric chloride solution + potassium ferrocyanide solution
f. Ferrous sulphate solution + potassium ferricyanide solution
g. Copper sulphate solution + potassium iodide solution
h. Potassium chromate + silver nitrate solution
i. Barium chloride solution + silver nitrate solution
j. Dilute sulphuric acid + barium chloride solution

9. To perform precipitation reaction of BaCl_2 and H_2SO_4 and obtain solid BaSO_4.
10. To neutralize sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid solution and recover the
crystal of sodium chloride.
11. To test the ferrous ions in the given aqueous solution and oxidise it to ferric ion,
(Ferrous and Ferric ion) (Redox Reaction)
12. To study the process of electrolysis and electroplating.

C. Experiments on quantitative analysis:

13. To determine the weight of given piece of Mg by hydrogen displacement method.
14. To determine the solubility of the given soluble solid at laboratory temperature.
15. To determine the relative surface tension of unknown liquid by drop count method.
16. To study the rate of flow of liquid through Ostwald’s viscometer and determine the
relative viscosity of unknown liquid.
17. To determine the molecular weight of given metal carbonate (M_2CO_3).

D. Experiments on preparation of gas and study of properties:

18. To prepare and collect hydrogen gas and study the following properties;

a. Solubility with water, colour, odour;
b. Litmus test;
c. Burning match stick test; and
d. Reducing properties of nascent hydrogen.

19. To prepare and collect ammonia gas and investigate the following properties:

a. Solubility with water, colour and odour;
b. Litmus test;
c. Action with copper sulphate solution phenolphathalein solution
d. Action with mercurous nitrate paper.

20. To prepare carbon dioxide gas and investigate the following properties:

a. Solubility, colour and odour;
b. Litmus paper test;
c. Lime water test; and
d. Action with burning magnesium ribbon.

21. To study the properties of hydrogen sulphide (physical, analytical and reducing).
22. To study the following properties of sulphuric acid:

a. Solubility with water;
b. Litmus paper test;
c. Precipitating reaction; and
d. Dehydrating reaction.

E. Experiments on qualitative analysis:

23. To detect the basic radical of the given salt by dry way and the acid radical by dry and wet ways in its aqueous solution.
Basic radicals: Zn^{++}, Al^{+++}, Mg^{++}, Ca^{++} ,
Acid radicals: CO_3^{–}, SO_4^{–}, NO_3^- , Br^-, I^- , Cl^-.

24. To detect the presence of Cl^-, SO_4^{- -} and CO_3^{- -} in the given sample of tap water and distilled water.

b) List of Sample project works for grade 11

1. Observe in your surroundings (kitchen, school, shop, etc.) and make a possible list of organic and inorganic compounds. How are they different? Why is it necessary to study them separately, put your argument?
2. Study of the methods of purification of water.
3. Testing the hardness of drinking water from different sources and the study of cause of hardness.
4. Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.
5. Preparation of molecular models using stick and clay.
6. Study of adulteration of food materials.
7. Study of application and adverse effects of pesticides on human health.
8. Study of use and adverse effects of plastics on environment.
9. Analysis of soil samples. (elaboration need pH, humus content)
10. Investigation on corrosion and rusting on iron.
11. Comparison of ground and surface water quality of a given place-colour, odour, pH,
conductivity, turbidity etc.
12. Design and development of water filter (Charcoal filter with sand can be designed and water quality can be monitored).

Note: Students are free to choose any topic listed in this curriculum or a topic suggested by teacher provided that it is within the theoretical contents of the syllabus. However, repetition of topic should be discouraged.