Chemistry - XI Syllabus

Chemistry – XI Syllabus

General & Physical Chemistry

UNIT 1: LANGUAGE OF CHEMISTRY (REVIEW LECTURES) (3 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Chemical equations, their significances and limitations
  • Balancing chemical equations by:
  1. hit and trial method ii. Partial equation method
  • Types of chemical reaction

UNIT 2: CHEMICAL ARITHMETIC (17 TEACHING HOURS)

2.1 DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY AND LAWS OF STOICHIOMETRY:

  • Postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory
  • Law of conservation of mass
  • Law of constant proportions
  • Law of multiple proportions
  • Law of reciprocal proportions
  • Law of gaseous volumes
  • Chemical calculations based on stoichiometry

2.2 ATOMIC MASS AND MOLECULAR MASS:

  • Definition of atomic mass and molecular mass
  • Mole concept
  • Mole in term of mass, volume, number and ions
  • Calculation based on mole concept

2.3 EMPIRICAL, MOLECULAR FORMULA AND LIMITING REACTANTS:

  • Percentage compositions
  • Derivation of empirical and molecular formula from percentage composition
  • Chemical calculation based on following chemical equation
  • Limiting reactants
  • Mass – mass relationship
  • Volume – volume relationship
  • Mass volume relationship (Solving related numerical problems)

2.4 AVOGADRO’S HYPOTHESIS AND ITS APPLICATIONS:

  • Development of Avogadro’s hypothesis
  • Definition of Avogadro’s hypothesis
  • Application of Avogadro’s hypothesis
  1. Deduction of atomicity of elementary gas
  2. Deduction of relationship between molecular mass and vapour density
  3. Deduction of molar volume of gas
  4. Deduction of molecular formula from its volumetric composition

(Solving related numerical problems)

2.5 EQUIVALENT MASS:

  • Concept of equivalent mass
  • Equivalent weight of elements, and compounds (salt, acid, base, oxidizing agents, reducing agents)
  • Gram equivalent weight (GEW)
  • Relation between equivalent weight, valency and atomic weight
  • Determination of equivalent weight of metal by
  1. Hydrogen displacement method
  2. Oxide formation method (Solving related numerical problems)

UNIT 3: STATES OF MATTER (14 TEACHING HOURS)

3.1 GASEOUS STATE:

  • Boyle’s law
  • Charle’s law and Kelvin scale of temperature
  • Application of Charles’ law and Boyle’s law
  • Combined gas law, ideal gas equation and universal gas constant
  • Dalton’s law of partial pressure
  • Mathematical derivation of Dalton’s law and their applications
  • Graham’s law of diffusion and its applications
  • Kinetic model of gas and its postulates
  • Ideal and real gases
  • Derivation of gas from ideal behaviour (Solving related numerical problems)

3.2 LIQUID STATE:

  • Physical properties of liquid

i. Evaporation and condensation

ii. Vapour pressure of liquid and boiling

iii. Surface tension

iv. Viscosity

  • Solution and solubility:
    1. Equilibrium in saturated solution
    2. Solubility and solubility curve and its applications

(Solving related numerical problem)

3.3 SOLID STATE:

  • Crystalline and amorphous solids
  • Water of crystallization
  • Efflorescence
  • Deliquescence
  • Hygroscopic
  • Seven types of crystal system
  • Simple cubic, face centered and body centered

UNIT 4: ATOMIC STRUCTURE (10 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Discovery of fundamental particles of atom (electron, proton and neutron)
  • Concept of atomic number, mass number, fractional atomic mass, isotopes, isobars
  • Rutherford’s α ray scattering experiment and nuclear model of atom; limitation
  • Bohr’s model of atom and explanation of hydrogen spectra
  • Limitation of Bohr’s model of atom
  • Elementary idea of quantum mechanical model
    1. Dual nature of electron (de – Broglie equation)
    2. Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle
    3. Probability concept
  • Shape of atomic orbital (s and p orbital’s only)
  • Quantum numbers
  • Pauli’s exclusion principle
  • Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity
  • Aufbau principle and Bohr Bury rule
  • Electronic configuration of the atoms and ions (Z = 1 to 30)

UNIT 5: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (3 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Concept of radioactivity
  • Radioactive rays (alpha ray, beta ray & gamma ray)
  • Meaning of natural and artificial radioactivity
  • Nuclear reactions, Nuclear energy (fission and fusion)
  • Nuclear isotopes and uses

UNIT 6: ELECTRONIC THEORY OF VALENCY & BONDING (8 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Basic assumption of electronic theory of valency
  • Octet rule
  • Ionic bonds, ionic compounds and characteristics of ionic compounds. Lewis symbol to represent the formation of ionic compounds
  • Covalent bonds, covalent compounds and characteristics of covalent compounds – Lewis structure of some typical covalent compounds
  • Co – ordinate covalent bonds. Lewis structures of some typical co – ordinate covalent compounds
  • Exception of the octet rule
  • Partial ionic characters of covalent compounds. Non – polar and polar covalent molecules
  • Dipole moment and its application
  • Some special types of bonds: hydrogen bond and its types, metallic bond, vander waal’s bond, Resonance and resonance hybrid structures of O3, SO3, SO2, CO32-, SO42-, PO43-, NO3
  • Classification of crystalline solids
    1. Ionic solid
    2. Covalent solid
    3. Molecular solid
    4. Metallic solid

UNIT 7: PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS (6 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Introduction
  • Mendeleev’s periodic law and periodic table
  • Anamolies of Mendeleev’s periodic table
  • Modern periodic law, and modern periodic table
  • Advantages of modern periodic table
  • Division of elements into s, p, d and f blocks
  • Periodicity of physical properties: valency, atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity and electronegativity (general trends only)

UNIT 8: OXIDATION & REDUCTION (6 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Classical concept of oxidation and reduction
  • Electronic interpretation of oxidation and reduction
  • Oxidation number and rules for the assignment of oxidation number
  • Differentiate between oxidation number and valency
  • Oxidizing and reducing agent
  • Redox reaction
  • Balancing redox reactions by
    1. Oxidation number method
    2. Ion – exchange method

UNIT 9: EQUILIBRIA (5 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Introduction
  • Equilibrium involving in physical change
  • Chemical equilibrium

– Reversible and irreversible reactions

– Dynamic nature of chemical equilibrium and its characteristics

– Law of mass action

– Equilibrium constant (Kc) and its characteristics

– Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium

– Relation between Kp and Kc (derivation)

– Le – chatelier’s principle and its application (No numerical is required)

Inorganic Chemistry

UNIT 10: NON – METALS I (12 TEACHING HOURS)

10.1 HYDROGEN:

  • Position in periodic table
  • Atomic hydrogen, Nascent hydrogen
  • Isotopes of hydrogen
  • Ortho and Para hydrogen
  • Applications

10.2 OXYGEN:

  • Position in periodic table
  • Types of oxides
  • Uses of oxygen

10.3 OZONE:

  • Occurrence
  • Preparation from oxygen
  • Structure of ozone
  • Important properties of ozone
  • Ozone layer and ozone hole
  • Uses of ozone

10.4 WATER:

  • Structure
  • Solvent properties of water
  • Heavy water and uses
  • Uses

10.5 NITROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS:

  • Position of nitrogen in Periodic table
  • Uses of nitrogen
  • Types of nitrogen oxides (name and Lewis structure)
  • Ammonia

– Manufacture by Haber’s synthesis method

– Physical properties, chemical properties and uses

  • Oxyacids of nitrogen (type)
  • Technical production of nitric acid by Ostwald method

– Properties of nitric acid and uses

– Test of nitrate ion

UNIT 11: NON – METALS II (23 TEACHING HOURS)

11.1 HALOGENS: (CHLORINE, BROMINE AND IODINE)

  • Position in periodic table
  • Comparative study on: preparation, properties and uses
  • Manufacture of bromine from carnallite process and manufacture of iodine from
    1. Sea weeds (principle only)
    2. Caliche (Principle only)
  • Uses of halogens
  • Comparative study on preparation, properties and uses of haloacids (HCL, HBr and HI)

11.2 CARBON:

  • Position in periodic table
  • Allotropes of carbon including fullerenes
  • Laboratory preparation, properties and uses of carbon monoxides

11.3 PHOSPHOROUS:

  • Occurrence, position in periodic table
  • Allotropes of phosphorous and uses of phosphorus
  • Preparation, properties and uses of phosphine
  • Oxides and oxyacids of phosphorous (structure and uses)
  • Preparation, properties and uses of orthophosphoric acid

11.4 SULPHUR:

  • Position in periodic table and allotropes
  • Hydrogen sulphide: (Laboratory methods and Kipp’s apparatus),
  • Properties and uses of:
  • Sulphurdioxide: Laboratory preparation properties and uses
  • Sulphuric acid: Manufacture by contact process, properties and uses
  • Sodiumthiosulphate (hypo): formula and uses

11.5 BORON AND SILICON:

  • Occurrences, position in periodic table
  • Properties and uses
  • Formula and uses of borax, boric acid, Silicate and Silica

11.6 NOBLE GAS:

  • Position in periodic table
  • Occurrence and uses

11.7 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:

  • Air pollution, photochemical smog
  • Acid rain, water pollution
  • Green house effect

UNIT 12: METAL & METALLURGICAL PRINCIPLES (6 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Characteristics of metals, non – metals and metalloids
  • Minerals and ores
  • Important minerals deposit in Nepal
  • Different process involved in metallurgical process
  • Concentration
  • Calcination and roasting
  • Smelting
  • Carbon reduction process
  • Thermite process
  • Electrochemical reduction
  • Refining of metals: poling, electro – refinement etc.

UNIT 13: ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS (10 TEACHING HOURS)

13.1 ALKALI METALS:

  • Periodic discussion and general characteristics
  • Sodium: Occurrence, Extraction from Downs process, properties and uses
  • Sodium hydroxide: Manufacture, properties and uses
  • Sodium carbonate: Manufacture, properties and uses

13.2 ALKALINE EARTH METALS:

  • Periodic discussion and general characteristics
  • Preparation, properties and uses of
    1. Quick lime
    2. Plaster of Paris
    3. Bleaching powder
    4. Magnesia
    5. Epsom salt

Organic Chemistry

UNIT 14: INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

14.1 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES (6 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Definition of organic chemistry and organic compounds
  • Origin of organic compounds (viral force theory)
  • Reasons for the separate study of organic compounds
  • Tetra covalency and catenation property of carbon
  • Classification of organic compounds
  • Functional groups and homologous series
  • Meaning of empirical formula, molecular formula, structural formula and contracted formula
  • Qualitative analysis of organic compounds (detection of N.S. and halogens by Lassaigne’s test)

14.2 NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (6 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Common names
  • IUPAC system and IUPAC rules of naming hydrocarbons (alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, Ketones, carboxylic acid, amines, ester and derivative halogen derivatives, nitriles etc.)

14.3 STRUCTURAL ISOMERISM IN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (2 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Definition of structure isomerism
  • Types of structure isomerism: chain isomerism, position isomerism, functional isomerism and metamerism

14.4 PRELIMINARY IDEA OF REACTION MECHANISM (2 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Concept of homolytic and heterolytic fission
  • Electrophile, nucleophiles and free – radicals
  • Inductive effect, + I and – I effect

UNIT 15: HYDROCARBONS

15.1 SOURCES (4 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Origin of coal and petroleum
  • Hydrocarbon from petroleum cracking and reforming
  • Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon from coal
  • Quality of gasoline
  • Octane number and gasoline additive

15.2 ALKANES (SATURATED HYDROCARBONS)

  • General methods of preparations:

– Decarboxylation

– Catalytic hydrogenation

– Reduction of haloalkane

– Kolbe’s electrolysis method

– Using Grignard’s reagent

– Wurtz reaction

– From aldehydes and ketones

  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties: Substitutions reaction, oxidation, pyrolysis or cracking, aromatization

15.3 ALKENES (4 TEACHING HOURS)

  • General methods of preparation

– Dehydration of alcohol

– Dehydrohalogenration

– Catalytic hydrogenation of alkyne

– Kolbe’s electrolysis

  • Laboratory preparation of alkene
  • Chemical properties of alkene: Addition reaction (H2, X2, HX, H2O, O3, H2SO4)
  • Oxidation with alkaline KMnO4 (Baeyer’s reaction)
  • Polymerization
  • Test of ethene and uses

15.4 ALKYNES (3 TEACHING HOURS)

ETHYNE:

  • Preparation from
  1. Carbon and hydrogen
  2. Kolbe’s electrolysis
  3. 1, 2 dibromoethane
  • Lab preparation of ethyne
  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties:
  1. Addition (H2, X2, HX, H2O, O3)
  2. Acidic nature (action with ammonical AgNO3 and ammonical Cu2Cl2)
  3. Oxidation with alkaline KMnO4
  4. Polymerization
  • Uses of ethyne