Botany - XII Syllabus

Botany – XII Syllabus (75 Teaching Hours)

UNIT 1: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF ORGANISMS (27 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Plant Anatomy:
  • Types of tissues
  • Meristematic and permanent tissues
  • Internal structure of dicot and monocot root
  • Stem and leaf
  • Secondary growth of dicot stem
  • Plant Physiology:
  1. Water relation:
  • Osmosis,
  • Diffusion,
  • ascent of sap and transpiration
  1. Photosynthesis:
  • Site of photosynthesis,
  • mechanism and factors affecting photosynthesis
  • Respiration:
  • Types of respiration
  • Mechanism and factors affecting respiration
  1. Growth:
  • Plant growth hormones: Auxins, Gibberellin, Cytokinin
  1. Plant Movement:
  • Concept of growth and turgor movement

UNIT 2: GENETICS (32 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Elements of heredity and variation
  • Genetic material (DNA and RNA)
  • Genetic code
  • Gene pool
  • Genetic expression and its regulation
  • Basis of Mendelian genetics
  • Mendel’s laws of inheritance
  • Concept of incomplete dominance and co – dominance
  • Multiple gene
  • Linkages
  • Crossing over
  • Mutation and its types and polyploidy
  • Sex – linked inheritance (X – lined gene for eye colour of Drosophiia and color – blindness in man)

UNIT 3: DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (10 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Reproduction and development of angiosperms – Asexual reproduction
  • Pollination
  • Development of male and female gametophyte
  • Fertilization and development of embryo (dicot and monocot)

UNIT 4: APPLICATION OF BIOLOGY (6 TEACHING HOUR)

  • Introduction to biotechnology
  • Tissue culture
  • Concept of breeding technique
  • Disease resistant plants
  • Green manures
  • Genetic engineering and its application
  • Fermentation technology: alcoholic and antibiotic fermentation