Botany - XI Syllabus

Secondary Education Curriculum

1. Biomolecules & Cell Biology

  • Biomolecules: 4 Teaching Hours
    • Introduction and functions of: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, minerals, enzymes and water.
  • Cell: 8 Teaching Hours
    • Introduction of cell, concepts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, detail structure of eukaryotic cells (composition, structure and functions of cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, ribosomes, nucleus, chromosomes, cilia, flagella and cell inclusions.
  • Cell division: 3 Teaching Hours
    • Concept of cell cycle, types of cell division (amitosis, mitosis and meiosis) and significances

2. Floral Diversity

  • Introduction: 1 Teaching Hour
    • Three domains of life, binomial nomenclature, five kingdom classification system (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia); status of flora in Nepal and world representation
  • Fungi: 3 Teaching Hour
    • General introduction and characteristic features of phycomycetes, ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes; structure and Reproduction of Mucor and Yeast, introduction of Mushrooms, poisonous and non-poisonous mushrooms, economic importance of fungi.
  • Lichen: 1 Teaching Hour
    • General introduction, characteristic features and economic importance of lichen
  • Algae: 2 Teaching Hour
    • General introduction and characteristic feature of green, brown and red algae; structure and reproduction of Spirogyra. Economic importance of algae
  • Bryophyta: 2 Teaching Hour
    • General introduction and characteristic features of liverworts, hornworts and moss; morphological structure and reproduction of Marchantia. Economic importance of bryophytes
  • Pteridophyta: 2 Teaching Hour
    • General introduction and characteristic features of pteridophytes; morphological structure and reproduction of Dryopteris. Economic importance of pteridophytes
  • Gymnosperm: 3 Teaching Hour
    • General introduction and characteristic features of Gymnosperms; morphology and reproduction of Pinus. Economic importance of gymnosperm
  • Angiosperm: 16 Teaching Hour
    • Morphology (root, stem, leaves, inflorescences, flowers and fruit); Taxonomic study: Definition, taxonomic hierarchy, classification systems (artificial, natural and phylogenetic) of angiosperms, taxonomic description of the families – Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Liliaceae with economic importance

3. Introductory Microbiology

  • Monera: 3 Teaching Hour
    • General introduction, structure of bacterial cell, mode of nutrition, bacterial growth; cyanobacteria (blue green algae).
  • Virus: 1 Teaching Hour
    • General introduction, structure and importance of virus, bacteriophage
  • Impacts of biotechnology in the field of microbiology: 1 Teaching Hour

4. Ecology

  • Ecosystem ecology: 7 Teaching Hour
    • Concept of ecology, biotic and abiotic factors, species interactions; concept of ecosystem, structural and functional aspects of pond and forest ecosystem, food chain, food web, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, biogeochemical cycle – carbon and nitrogen cycles, concept of succession.
  • Ecological Adaptation: 2 Teaching Hour
    • Concept of adaptation, hydrophytes and xerophytes.
  • Ecological Imbalances: 2 Teaching Hour
    • Green house effects and climate change, depletion of ozone layer, acid rain and biological invasion.

5. Vegetation

  • Vegetation: 2 Teaching Hour
    • Introduction, types of vegetation in Nepal, concept of In-situ (protected areas) and Ex-situ (botanical garden, seed bank) conservation.
  • Natural environment vegetation and human activities: 1 Teaching Hour

Practical Courses [32 Hours]

Unit 1: Biomolecules and Cell Biology

1. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant cells (e.g. palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem,) through temporary/permanent slides.
2. Study of mitosis in onion root tips cells by preparing temporary slides and permanent slides.

Unit 2: Floral Diversity

3. Collect, identify different types of plants from your nearby locality and preserve them with appropriate method.
4. Collect, preserve and identify some available mushrooms. Distinguish poisonous and edible mushrooms.
5. Study and describe three locally available common flowering plants from each of the following families (Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae) including dissection and display of floral whorls and anther and ovary to show number of chambers. Types of root (Tap and Adventitious); Stem (Herbaceous and woody); Leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
6. Study and identification of different types of inflorescence.

Unit 3: Introductory Microbiology

7. Culture the given sample of soil and study the microorganisms present in it.

Unit 4: Ecology

8. Study the biotic and abiotic factors of a pond as an ecosystem.
9. Determine the population density of plants of given area by quadrate method.
10. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
11. Study of plant population density by quadrate method.

Unit 5: Vegetation

12. Study of the specimens and identification with reasons- Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant and one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.