Botany - XI Syllabus

Botany – XI Syllabus

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY (5 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Biochemically important organic and inorganic molecules (general concepts)
  • Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, nucleic acid, minerals and water

UNIT 2: CELL BIOLOGY (15 TEACHING HOURS)

  • The cell: The cell as a unit of life
  • Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  • Structure and functions of cell organelles and inclusions
  • Cell division: Amitosis, mitosis, meiosis

UNIT 3: BIODIVERSITY (40 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Definition and scope of biodiversity
  • Flora diversity of Nepal
  • Concept of taxonomy: classification, binomial nomenclature, shortcoming of two kingdom classification, hierarchic system in classification, phylogeny
  • Five kingdom classification: Monera, Protista, Mycota, Plantae and Animalia
  • Monera: General account, structure and function of bacterial cells, concept of autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles, economic importance of bacteria
  • Cyanobacteria: Nostoc – structure, reproduction and economic importance
  • Mycota: Concept of Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes
  • Structure and reproduction of Zygomycetes (Mucor), Ascomycetes (Yeast), Economic importance of fungi
  • Plantae:
  • Algae: Introduction to green, red and brown algae, structure and reproduction of Spirogyra
  • Bryophyta: Marchantia and Funaria (Morphology and life cycle)
  • Pteridophyta: Dryopteris (morphology and life cycle)
  • Gymnosperm: Brief morphological structure of Cycas and Pinus structure and its distribution
  • Angiosperm: morphology: root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit and seed relevant to the following families.
  • Taxonomy and economic importance of the following families: Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Solanaceae
  • Leguminosae – Papilionoidae only, Compositae (Asteraceae) and Gramineae (Poaceae).
  • Lichen: Introduction and economic importance
  • Virus: structure and economic importance

UNIT 4: BIOTA AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT (15 TEACHING HOURS)

  • Ecology: Definition, abiotic, biotic factors and their interactions
  • Concept of ecosystem, Pond and grassland ecosystem: structural and functional aspects, food chain, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, concept of community and succession
  • Bio – geochemical cycle: carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle
  • Ecological imbalance and its consequences: Green house effects, depletion of ozone layer and acid rain
  • Concept of mountain ecosystem (altitudinal and climatic changes)
  • Adaptation: Hydrophyte, mesophyte and xerophyte
  • Conservation:
  • Forest conservation: Brief introduction of forest of Nepal, importance of afforestation and hazards of deforestation.

Format of Question Model

Botany

1

Answer in very short; any seven

Total questions to be asked – 10

7 Q x 1 mark

= 7 marks

2

Describe in brief; any five

Total questions to be asked – 7

5 Q x 3 marks

= 15 marks

3

Long answer questions (two questions) one question is given as option as “or”

1 Q of 8 marks + 1 Q of 7.5 marks

= 15.5 marks

 

Total:

 

= 37.5 Marks